As an emerging designer, finding the right manufacturer to fit your brand is one of the…. This is usually stitched on calico or muslin which is an inferior quality of fabric and it reduces cost. It is the process by which a small number of garments are made so as to match the buyer requirement and to get approval from the buyer so as to start off the production.
The first patterns are sent to the sewing unit for assembling them into garment. This is usually stitched on calico or muslin which is an inferior quality of fabric and it reduces cost. This sample is constructed to analyze the pattern fit and design too.
After the sample garment is stitched it is reviewed by a panel of designers, pattern makers and sewing specialists. If any changes have to be made they are made at this time. The pattern design is now taken for creating the production patterns. The production pattern is one which will be used for huge production of garments.
The pattern maker makes the patterns on standard pattern making paper. These papers are made-up of various grades. The most important component, the tissue paper pattern, is made from the lightest and thinnest paper commercially available it is not made at the pattern companies. It is called 7. Garment patterns can be constructed by two means: Actual body size measurements. The purpose of grading is to create patterns in different standard sizes.
Grading a pattern is really scaling a pattern up or down in order to adjust it for multiple sizes. Pattern sizes can be large, medium and small or else there are standard patterns of size 10, 12, 14, 16 and so on for different figure and statures sizes. Pattern grading by manual method is a cumbersome task because the grader has to alter the pattern on each and every point from armhole, to neckline, sleeve cap and wrist etc.
The measuring department determines the fabric yardage needed for each style and size of garment. Computer software helps the technicians create the optimum fabric layout to suggest so fabric can be used efficiently.
Markers, made in accordance to the patterns are attached to the fabric with the help of adhesive stripping or staples. Markers are laid in such a way so that minimum possible fabric gets wasted during cutting operation. After marking the garment manufacturer will get the idea of how much fabric he has to order in advance for the construction of garments. Therefore careful execution is important in this step.
Computer marking is done on speciallized softwares. In computerized marking there is no need of large paper sheets for calculating the yardage, in fact, mathematical calculations are made instead to know how much fabric is required. With the help of spreading machines, fabric is stacked on one another in reaches or lays that may go over ft The fabric is then cut with the help of cloth cutting machines suitable for the type of the cloth.
These can be band cutters having similar work method like that of band saws; cutters having rotary blades; machines having reciprocal blades which saw up and down; die clickers similar to die or punch press; or computerized machines that use either blades or laser beams to cut the fabric in desired shapes. The sorter sorts the patterns according to size and design and makes bundles of them.
This step requires much precision because making bundles of mismatched patterns can create severe problems. On each bundle there are specifications of the style size and the marker too is attached with it. The sorted bundles of fabrics are now ready to be stitched. Large garment manufacturers have their own sewing units other use to give the fabrics on contract to other contractors. Stitching in-house is preferable because one can maintain quality control during the processing.
On the other hand if contractors are hired keeping eye on quality is difficult unless the contactor is one who precisely controls the process. There are what is called sewing stations for sewing different parts of the cut pieces. In this workplace, there are many operators who perform a single operation.
One operator may make only straight seams, while another may make sleeve insets. Yet another two operators can sew the waist seams, and make buttonholes. Various industrial sewing machines too have different types of stitches that they can make. These machines also have different configuration of the frame.
Some machines work sequentially and feed their finished step directly into the next machine, while the gang machines have multiple machines performing the same operation supervised by a single operator. All these factors decide what parts of a garment can be sewn at that station. Finally, the sewn parts of the garment, such as sleeves or pant legs, are assembled together to give the final form to the clothing.
Open seams, wrong stitching techniques, non- matching threads, and missing stitches, improper creasing of the garment, erroneous thread tension and raw edges are some of the sewing defects which can affect the garment quality adversely.
During processing the quality control section needs to check each prepared article against these defects. Molding may be done to change the finished surface of the garment by applying pressure, heat, moisture, or certain other combination. Pressing, pleating and creasing are the basic molding processes. Creasing is mostly done before other finishing processes like that of stitching a cuff. Creasing is also done before decorating the garment with something like a pocket, appliqués, embroidered emblems etc.
Vertical and form presses is automated machines. Perform simple pressing operations, such as touching up wrinkles in knit shirts, around embroidery and snaps, and at difficult-to-reach places on garments. For the textile and apparel industry, product quality is calculated in terms of quality and standard of fibers, yarns, fabric construction, color fastness, designs and the final finished garments.
Quality control in terms of garment manufacturing, pre-sales and posts sales service, delivery, pricing, etc are essential for any garment manufacturer, trader or exporter. Certain quality related problems, often seen in garment manufacturing like sewing, color, sizing, or garment defects should never be over looked. Open seams, wrong stitching techniques, non- matching threads, missing stitches, improper creasing of the garment, erroneous thread tension and raw edges are some of the sewing defects which can affect the garment quality adversely.
Variation of color between the sample and the final garment, wrong color combinations and mismatching dyes should always be avoided. Wrong gradation of sizes, difference in measurement of various parts of a garment like sleeves of XL size for body of L size garment can deteriorate the garments beyond repair.
Broken or defective buttons, snaps, stitches, different shades within the same garment, dropped stitches, exposed notches and raw edges, fabric defects, holes, faulty zippers, loose or hanging sewing threads, misaligned buttons and holes, missing buttons, needle cuts or chews, pulled or loose yarn, stains, unfinished buttonhole, short zippers, inappropriate trimmings etc.
The finished garments are finally sorted on the basis of design and size and packed to send for distribution to the retail outlets. CAD and CAM are two technologies that have made prominent changes in the way garment manufacturing was done in previous eras. Sign in or sign up and post using a HubPages Network account. Comments are not for promoting your articles or other sites. This subject matter is how to step by step function have to follow for manufacturing is quite easy and informative explanation i think The explanation of the subject matter that is garment manufacturing, is deliberately well except at some rare chances the author lost sequence.
Overall the representation is worth reading and I found it quite easy to decipher the process of garment manufacturing through this robust piece of work. Thanks to the author! Its always nice when you read smthoeing that is not only informative but entertaining.
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Please send reply to hyiepestaina gmail. Please help me where to reach and how to get my 1st order of stitching clothing for my new factory I just open my sewing co, I have 10 machines and 8 employes. Your help will be a big start, I am trying to calling different factories but they don't send it out.
I am a fashion designer who takes contracts from other institutes such as school and other organizations. But I find it difficult to get the work done easily. I would want to know if there is such or similar to this. I'm Naga Just wish to extand that the information that you have up loaded is going to be usefull to me in my project paper. I hope you would allow us to use this information to explain the process flow of a garment manufacturing Fashion under Suitable Prices is not difficult because Stylish appearance is an essential part of human life.
I am Hafiza Arooj from Pakistan. I,am a very good tailoress and Alhamdulilah many ladies from different countries send their clothes for sewing at very low rate. If any one wants to get stitched the female clothes. My services are always for them.
My contact number is Zone A which point Zone B which point C which , pls show the picture so. All information is fine but I need more information about estimate of manufacture. Please write some thing to avoid defects in garments to zero level for specially fashion garments but earlier will be the your kindness. How you like the target idea???? Thanks so much for sharing such a great information as I wanna get some high post job. Till now,I am a Software Engineer of Garments company.
I just develop the tools asked by the managers don't know what lies beneath. This will definitely give me sound knowledge of the complete manufacturing process.
Avijit thanks for the comment and I will surely write something related to what you need as soon as I get time. I am just starting a manufacturing unit of my own, Luckly with my degree in Marketing and fiancé i was able to get some orders now is the time to manufacture them and i need Help. Thanks Zia-ul-karim for the comment, it has given me motivation to write better and quality articles.
Karthick well sorry for late reply and surely I will write a Hub on basic techniques of garment construction for you specially. Hopefully you will read it soon. I am a beginner in garments. I am passion about designing and manufacturing T-shirts. It's informative for me. Happy to know that it is was helpful. Hey very informative, as i am doing my project work for garment constuction. See 19 more comments. Cutting order is an authorization by the production manager to cut a given amount of styles, from the spreads.
It comes in form of a package file that carries the following details: For this, first of all a thin brown paper sheet is spread on the cutting table using an adhesive tape to prevent the bottom plies from shifting during cutting.
Then the actual spreading process begins with the laying of first fabric layer on this brown sheet and subsequently the other plies are laid. The spreading of this lay is done either manually or automatically by the spreading machine. While manual spreading is time consuming, the use of traveling machine gives faster and more accurate results. Whereas, lay height depends on the thickness of the fabric and the capacity of the cutting machine. The machine is moved through the lay following the pattern lines of the marker and the reciprocating blade cut the pieces of the fabric progressively.
Notches are also added. For smaller components like collars, ribs etc. It is a non-portable cutting device, which cuts the fabric as it is passed across the blade. The garments are kept aside as and when they are cut.
Block cutting Jacquard, stripes and checks cannot be spread with the spreading machine due to requirements of matching so they are spread manually. Often structures like jacquard and checks are spread and cut in single number for accuracy. The plies are spread one at a time, matching the stripes with those in the previous plies.
Then block are cut out from this spread for specific number of pieces. The size of the block is dictated by the CAD room itself, which sends a mini marker for the cutting of the blocks from the lay and placement of the patterns on the blocks. Accordingly the cut blocks are manually marked on the top.
The plies in the block are aligned to the match the stripes and a rough cutting of the fabric following the markings of the pattern is done. The cut shapes are again checked for alignment and the stripes superimposed.
Cutting of striped fabric is a much more time consuming process. The wastage involved is also more due to cutting in two stages. Sorting and Ticketing The pieces cut out from the lay are now sorted out size wise. All the components of one garment size are bought together. It is very important to take care that pieces cut from two different bolts bundles of fabric are not mixed up. This is because within a lot there are bolt-to-bolt variations in the color shade.
The sorted pieces are now ticketed. Ticketing is the process of marking the cut components for shade matching precision, and sequence identification.
The worker secures one end of the stack and puts on the ticket using ticket gun. The ticket contains the size, bundle number and piece number and serves as important means to track the parts of the garment in the assembly line from start to end. Cut panel checking The ticketed panels are now sent to the checking area for inspection of every individual piece for any objectionable faults. Panels having faults like wrong grain line, inappropriate size, incorrect shape and any fabric defects like holes, cut, shade variations etc.
A cutting component checking report is filled for the total quality cut, checked and approved. The rejected pieces are sent back and an equal number of fresh panels are separately cut, replaced in the set and ticketed with the same number as the rejected ones. Other mend able faults are marked with an alteration sticker and passed on. This is spotted out during garment finishing or washing.
Bundling The checked components of one style and in one size are now clubbed and bundled using ties. The size of bundle depends upon the requirement of the production plant. Each bundle will contain pieces of the same style and same size only. The cutting department issues the amount required by the production department when asked for. Embroidery The cutting department is responsible for sending the cut components of a style for embroidery as stated in the production process.
Blocks of panels are sent for embroidery, which are re-cut after receiving back. To avoid mixing of the patterns the panels of the same size are stitched together temporarily before dispatch for the embroidery. Fusing Fusing is also carried out in the cutting room itself. The parts to be fused are separated from the bundle.
The fusing material is cut according to the size of the components to be fused. The components along with the cut fusing material are kept between two papers sheets and the pack is passed through the fusing machine. By means of the temperature and the pressure fusing takes place at a particular speed and for a particular time.
The pack comes out at the other end on the conveyors and the pieces are removed and re bundled. After receiving all these details they send a request for the cut parts from the cutting and sorting section and the request is sent to the accessory stores for all the accessories that are required for the particular style then they start the production for the new style.
Before starting the proper production the production floor does a process of batch- setting for the floor which is training the operators for the new style that has to be produced bulk, this teaching session will go on for about 2 — 3 days maximum. After this batch setting process the production for the next day starts with a smaller commitment and then the production gradually increase.
Once the cut parts is received from the cutting and sorting section then the parts are prepared and assembled according to the line that is planned. After the assembling of the parts is done then there will be a line checking, where the shade matching and the measurements are checked and sent.
The garment making is divided into three different stages and at these three stages the checking is done. The flow of material in the production floor is through the bundle system and each operator gets a bundle containing similar pieces and there will be about 15 — 20 pieces in each bundle and the operator completely finishes the job and sends it to the next operator to do the next operation on them. Each bundle will contain same component of different garments.
The checking person will be present at a position where the garment is partially finished and it is as mentioned checked thrice in the line and sometimes more than three and this depends on the buyer as well as the number of components present in the garment. The supervisor plays a vital role in the production floor. They have to convey the proper stitching method to the operators. Guide the operators when they face difficulty in making an operation and teach them the most suitable and an easy method of performing the task.
Complain the production managers if the operators are not performing their best. Have to maintain a proper communication between the operators and the management. When any operator is on leave then the supervisor has to make sure who can be a better person to fit into that vacant place. At times the supervisor himself sits and performs the operation if necessary. The supervisor should be in good terms with all the operators by having a friendly approach to them and also must make sure that none of them create any trouble for the factory at any time.
The production managers help the planning department during planning or allocating a particular line for the style by telling them the capacity of the line and also telling them about the skills of the operators. The different departments with which the IED works are as follows: The IED department helps the planning department to know the time required for the production of that particular style of the garment by calculating the SAM value for it and they also help in knowing the capacity of the factory based on which the planning department takes a decision if they have to proceed with the item or not.
The IED department calculates the productivity of the given style for the initial costing and also calculates or counts the accessories consumption by the style and gives all these details to the merchandising department for the costing purpose because the entire costing criteria depends on these aspects and the IED also gives the merchants suggestions regarding the reduction of the cost of manufacturing the garment by modifying any of the steps and the method of doing it.
The IED people using the GSD General Sewing Data prepare the style bulletin which includes the different types of seams and stitches that has to be done for the garment and it also includes the length of the seams and the types of stitches that has to be carried out at different places of the garment as per the buyers specifications and approval. Types of thread, area of placement of the trims and accessories and its location different kinds of labels that are supposed to be placed, the criteria under which the finished garment has to be checked, the times at which the inspection has to be carried out will also be mentioned in the style bulletin, this bulletin will be similar to the Tech Pack but contains more technical data than that.
This department analyze and estimate the manpower and their skill level which is required for the production of the garment, they also set a target of the batch for an hour, for a shift and for a month which will help them to maintain their outputs and also helps in timely completion of the order or sometimes earlier. After setting the targets for a batch and also for each operator then they calculate the efficiency.
This efficiency is purely based on the daily output of the batch as well as the single operator and then they come up with the monthly output by the particular batch. The embroidery section is a department which comes into picture only when the particular style demands.
As soon as the department receives the details they check the design that has to be done and they scan the design using the CAD software and then they digitize the design and check for the number of stitches involved, area the design has to cover, the style of the stitch involved for the design, thread colors required, thread count, starting point of the design on the garment while performing the operation etc.
After the design has been finalized then they do the embroidery for the samples that has to be produced to the buyer, these samples are done for about 6 — 7 garments and it is something done against the actual or exact order quantity.
After the samples have been generated then they conduct the pilot run in the embroidery section. Once the order has been confirmed and the exact order quantity that has to be produced is known then they start the bulk production during the production the embroidery action on the garment is done in two ways one is after the entire garment has been sewn and the other case is after the garment panels has been cut and before sewing them into a complete garment.
The embroidery section receives the garments from the sewing floor or from the cutting department and then they start their embroidery process. After the embroidery is been done for the first set of the garment or the cut parts received then they send them to the trimming and the checking section for every machine there are operators for this process. The merchandiser after getting the sample done, they bring the original sample that will be sent to the merchants by the buyer and they will also get the sample done in the factory and then they show both the samples and the specifications and ask the washing department to match the factory sample with the buyer sent sample with respect to the feel and the texture.
The washing unit checks the garment for the different aspects like: After coming to a conclusion of what recipe has to be used for the garment they start treating the garments in the desired sequence. At first they segregate the garments based on shade wise, job wise and unit wise, suppose the garments which are white in color and which have to be treated in the similar manner then such styles are clubbed together irrespective of their styles.
In this washing there are two types. Dry processing First the dry processing is carried out and then the wet processing is been followed. In the dry processing there are four different types they are, 1. Ripping or Blowout 3. Crinkling After the dry processing the next main thing which has to be done is wet processing.
Wet processing involves mainly two steps, they are: After dyeing is finished the fabrics or the garments are taken to the washing process. Then the garments are dried using the drier. After the garments are dried they are inspected by the inspection people and the inspection here is random it does not involve any organized way, any garment from the entire lot is randomly selected and inspected according to the criteria that will be specified to them by the merchandiser.
Once the inspection is over the garments are sent to the finishing and the packing section or sometimes if the garments has to be attached with some accessories or trims after the washing and dyeing stages then such styles are sent to the production floor to finish the left over job on them and then sent to the finishing and the packing department.
In order to maintain quality the quality assurance departments has split up their job into different stages of manufacturing and there are classified into four major groups which are as follows.
The process of designing and manufacturing apparel is incredibly complex and detail oriented, and launching a fashion line requires a great deal of planning and preparation from the start. Each step along the way has its own set of considerations and requirements that should be addressed and completed before moving on to the next phase. Based on present apparel industry, garment manufacturing processes are categorized as. Pre-Production Processes - Pre-production process includes sampling, sourcing of raw materials, Approvals, PP meeting etc. Read this for further reading on pre-production processes. Production processes - Production processes are cutting, sewing etc. Apparel manufacturing process 1. Khushboo Priyambada 2. Garment manufacturing is an assembly- oriented activity with a great range of raw materials, product types, production volumes, supply chains, retail markets and associated technologies. Companies range from small family business to multinationals. The clothing industry is labour intensive industry.